3 recipes for homemade vegan mayonnaise
Why buy mayo when you can make it to suit your dietary (and sandwich) needs?
Today’s graphic looks at the 20 common amino acids that are combined to make up the proteins in our bodies. It also gives the three-letter and one-letter codes for each, as well as denoting whether they are ‘essential’ or ‘non-essential’.
Read more information & grab the PDF here: http://wp.me/p4aPLT-tu
— Albert Einstein (via whats-out-there)
— Robert Ingersoll (d. 1899)
NOVA: The Big Bang’s Identity Crisis.
NOVA: What Are Gravitons?
We must live in at least five dimensions. The familiar three in which birds fly, time, and the direction in which gravity curves space.
I believe that there is more than one dimension of time. In a linear time, there could be no choice. Probabilities would be nonsense.
Drugs Under The Microscope
These are actually gorgeous
My Fox news station reports indicate that ecstacy and MDMA are the same thing. Why do these images look so different?
Melba Beecher, Mono, holding fried chicken mushrooms (Lyophyllum decastes) in Sierra National Forest, 2006. Photograph by M. Kat Anderson.
Phyllis Montgomery, Central Sierra Me-Wuk, with a coral mushroom (Ramaria violaceibrunnea) in Stanislaus National Forest, 2010. Photograph by M. Kat Anderson.
LaVerne Glaze, Karuk/Yurok, with American matsutake mushrooms (Tricholoma magnivelare). Photograph by Frank K. Lake.
CALIFORNIA INDIAN ETHNOMYCOLOGY AND ASSOCIATED FOREST MANAGEMENT M. Kat Anderson and Frank K. Lake Journal of Ethnobiology 33(1): 33–85 (pdf)
"Many California Indian tribes utilized mushrooms for food, medicine, and/or technological purposes. This paper summarizes which mushrooms were important to different California Indian tribes in historic and modern times and how they were harvested, prepared, and stored. Oral interviews were conducted and the ethnographic literature reviewed to detail the extent and complexity of indigenous knowledge about fungi harvesting and associated burning to enhance mushroom populations and their habitats. Through two case studies, we review indigenous burning practices of several tribes in the lower montane mixed conifer forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada, and the mixed evergreen forests of northern California. We explore the potential ecological effects of burning on these forests at different levels of biological organization and conclude by offering suggestions for research, management, and restoration practices needed to perpetuate usable mushrooms."
Ring Species: a key to understand Speciation and Evolution
A great power of evolution is a process called speciation, which produces new species from ancestral populations. This is easy to say, but understanding the details is challenging to investigate and hard to understand. Something that’s helpful for grasping some of these concepts, and also just plain cool, is the rare phenomenon of ring species.
There are complexes of related species, often identified as subspecies because of their similarities, that can be found in territories arrayed around an isolating geographic feature. These features can be mountains, lakes, valleys, or any other divider that allows populations to spread out along its boundary edges, but not easily cross over the central division. The result is a ring-like arrangement of territories around the geographic divider.
What’s notable about these populations of related species/subspecies, is that the animals whose territories are adjacent to one another can and often do interbreed. They have clear genetic or morphological differences (which suggests separate species) but interbreeding is commonly held to indicate they are the same species. Such creatures highlight the difficulty of defining species in the messy realm of real-world conditions.
These ambiguities take on dramatic significance when you compare the ends of the territorial “ring.” Although the populations spreading through the ring can interbreed, the species occupying the ends of the ring can not breed with one another. They seem entirely separate species, with no ambiguity. Somewhere along the line, sufficient difference has been introduced so that the species at the front has no hope of interbreeding with the species at the end. How can it be that population A is the same as population B, and B is the same as C, but A is different from C? Evolutionary biologists conclude we are seeing a geographic display of speciation in process.
Bearded Pygmy Chameleon - Rieppeleon brevicaudatus
Pygmy chameleons are a fascinating group of species due to their remarkably small size. This species, Rieppeleon brevicaudatus (Chamaeleonidae), endemic to Tanzania and Kenya, grows up to 7.6 cm long, and is distinctive from other species in the genus by having the soles of feet covered with sharply pointed tubercles, and a single small beardlike tuft of tubercles under the chin.
- Herbs/Flowers Associated with Happiness